Software Projects

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Linux Meta-Distributions

The Open-Embedded Project produces a build system that tracks meta-data for Linux distributions and application suites for mobile Linux devices. OpenMoko currently supports Open-Embedded and GumStix has announced on their mailing list that they'll be moving to Open-Embedded from their previous Buildroot based system.
From their web-site... "Buildroot is a set of Makefiles and patches that makes it easy generate a cross-compilation toolchain and root filesystem for your target Linux system using the uClibc C library. Buildroot is useful mainly for people working with small or embedded systems." Buildroot is similar to Open-Embedded in that it is targeted towards small systems and is less of a distribution and more of a meta-build system. The "conventional wisdom" is that Open-Embedded is more flexible, but Buildroot is much quicker at building systems.

Application Environments

See also GUI_Frameworks

OpenMoko aims to be an open source application environment for mobile phones.
Android is the software environment behind the Google-instigated Open Handset Alliance.
Maemo is Nokia's project to bring mobile linux to internet tablets. The focus of Maemo is more towards a connected internet communicator and less of a mobile phone. But the line between the two is certainly blurring.
Hildon is the mobile framework used by Maemo; but you can apparently use Hildon without Maemo, so I'm listing them separately here.
Jowles is Matt Hamrick's mobile application environment.
SqueakyMoPho Project
SqueakyMoPho is a project to put a Squeak VM on the MyPhone.
Hiker is the mobile Linux environment from the good people at Access (who used to be PalmSource.)